Geography 327      Hydrology


genetic classification of lake basins

  1. tectonic
  2. glacial
  3. landslide basins
  4. solution basins in calcareous rocks
  5. fluviatile
  6. deflation basins
  7. coastal and shoreline basins
  8. meteor impact
  9. artificial

freshwater lakes area (km2)/rank maximum depth (m)
glacial lakes
Superior 84500/1 405
Huron 63500/3 229
Great Bear 31400/6 415
Great Slave 28500/9 616
Winnipeg 24400/11 18
tectonic lakes
Tanganyika, east Africa 32900/5 1440
Baikal, Kazakhstan 30600/7 1620

source: Canada Water Yearbook, 1977-78, Environment Canada, Water Resources Branch

Lake districts

  1. Canadian shield
  2. Fenno-Scandian (Finland and Scandinavia) shield
  3. East African rift zone

Role of lakes in the hydrological cycle

Lake kinematics (motion)

variations in lake level

  1. climatically-driven
  2. tidal influences on very large lakes
differences in lake level between opposite shores cause the lake water to move back and forth with decreasing amplitude as the potential energy of the raised water is converted to kinetic energy, heat and noise

seasonal circulation of lake water: the fall and winter overturn

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