Geography 327      Hydrology


Glacier Ice

glacier mass balance

Canadian glacier inventory

Ground ice

hydrologic significance of ground ice

  1. permafrost
  2. seasonally thawed ground
  3. segregated ice
  4. lack of baseflow

Lake and River Ice

Freezing (nucleation) of water

pure water -40 +/- 2
tap (filtered) water -2.5
silty water -1.0 to -1.5
water with needles or leaves -1.0

cooling.gif - 7.07 K

modes of nucleation

Static ice

secondary nucleation

snow ice (white ice)

Ice cover on the Great Lakes

Dynamic Ice

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