Terra & Aqua Satellites

Earth Observing System

 

 

Platform Lifetime
(design)
Altitude Equator Crossing Sensors
Terra

 1999-present
(6 years)

705 km

10:30 a.m.

ASTER
CERES
MISR
MODIS
MOPITT
Aqua 2002-presnt
(6 years)
705 km 1:30 p.m.
(ascending)
AIRS 
AMSR-E 
CERES 
MODIS

 

ASTER

Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer


NASA/JPL

Characteristic VNIR SWIR TIR
Spectral Range Band 1: 0.52 - 0.60 m
Nadir looking
Band 4: 1.600 - 1.700 m Band 10: 8.125 - 8.475 m
Band 2: 0.63 - 0.69 m
Nadir looking
Band 5: 2.145 - 2.185 m Band 11: 8.475 - 8.825 m
Band 3: 0.76 - 0.86 m
Nadir looking
Band 6: 2.185 - 2.225 m Band 12: 8.925 - 9.275 m
Band 3: 0.76 - 0.86 m
Backward looking
Band 7: 2.235 - 2.285 m Band 13: 10.25 - 10.95 m
Band 8: 2.295 - 2.365 m Band 14: 10.95 - 11.65 m
Band 9: 2.360 - 2.430 m
Ground Resolution 15 m 30m 90m
Data Rate (Mbits/sec) 62 23 4.2
Cross-track Pointing (deg.) 24 8.55 8.55
Cross-track Pointing (km) 318 116 116
Swath Width (km) 60 60 60
Detector Type Si PtSi-Si HgCdTe
Quantization (bits) 8 8 12
NASA/JPL

San Francisco

Standard False-Colour Composite
Thermal IR
Suspended Sediment

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MODIS

Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

NASA/JPL
Orbit: 705 km, 10:30 a.m. descending node (Terra) or 1:30 p.m. ascending node (Aqua), sun-synchronous, near-polar, circular
Scan Rate: 20.3 rpm, cross track
Swath Dimensions: 2330 km (cross track) by 10 km (along track at nadir)
Telescope: 17.78 cm diam. off-axis, afocal (collimated), with intermediate field stop
Size: 1.0 x 1.6 x 1.0 m
Weight: 228.7 kg
Power: 162.5 W (single orbit average)
Data Rate: 10.6 Mbps (peak daytime); 6.1 Mbps (orbital average)
Quantization: 12 bits
Spatial Resolution: 250 m (bands 1-2)
500 m (bands 3-7)
1000 m (bands 8-36)
Design Life: 6 years


Primary Use Band Bandwidth1 Spectral
Radiance2
Required
SNR3
Land/Cloud/Aerosols
Boundaries
1 620 - 670 21.8 128
2 841 - 876 24.7 201
Land/Cloud/Aerosols
Properties
3 459 - 479 35.3 243
4 545 - 565 29.0 228
5 1230 - 1250 5.4 74
6 1628 - 1652 7.3 275
7 2105 - 2155 1.0 110
Ocean Color/
Phytoplankton/
Biogeochemistry
8 405 - 420 44.9 880
9 438 - 448 41.9 838
10 483 - 493 32.1 802
11 526 - 536 27.9 754
12 546 - 556 21.0 750
13 662 - 672 9.5 910
14 673 - 683 8.7 1087
15 743 - 753 10.2 586
16 862 - 877 6.2 516
Atmospheric
Water Vapor
17 890 - 920 10.0 167
18 931 - 941 3.6 57
19 915 - 965 15.0 250
Surface/Cloud
Temperature
20 3.660 - 3.840 0.45(300K) 0.05
21 3.929 - 3.989 2.38(335K) 2.00
22 3.929 - 3.989 0.67(300K) 0.07
23 4.020 - 4.080 0.79(300K) 0.07
Atmospheric
Temperature
24 4.433 - 4.498 0.17(250K) 0.25
25 4.482 - 4.549 0.59(275K) 0.25
Cirrus Clouds
Water Vapor
26 1.360 - 1.390 6.00 150(SNR)
27 6.535 - 6.895 1.16(240K) 0.25
28 7.175 - 7.475 2.18(250K) 0.25
Cloud Properties 29 8.400 - 8.700 9.58(300K) 0.05
Ozone 30 9.580 - 9.880 3.69(250K) 0.25
Surface/Cloud
Temperature
31 10.780 - 11.280 9.55(300K) 0.05
32 11.770 - 12.270 8.94(300K) 0.05
Cloud Top
Altitude
33 13.185 - 13.485 4.52(260K) 0.25
34 13.485 - 13.785 3.76(250K) 0.25
35 13.785 - 14.085 3.11(240K) 0.25
36 14.085 - 14.385 2.08(220K) 0.35

1 Bands 1 to 19 are in nm; Bands 20 to 36 are in m
2 Spectral Radiance values are (W/m2 -m-sr)
3 SNR = Signal-to-noise ratio
4 NE(delta)T = Noise-equivalent temperature difference

Note: Performance goal is 30-40% better than required

Manitoba

Lakes Winnipeg (right) and Manitoba (left) are centered in this true-color MODIS image of Manitoba captured on September 10, 2002. Surrounded by wetlands that give way to the boreal forest to the north and the Great Plains to the south, the lakes appear to be awash in sediment and possibly algae or other plant growth, for they are nearly as green as the surrounding vegetation. South of the lake, MODIS detected several fires, which are marked with red dots. To the south, along the Manitoba-North Dakota border, a circle of elevated ground supports a different kind of vegetation than the surrounding terrain. Northeast of the fires, a grayish cluster of pixels marks the location of the city of Winnipeg


NASA/JPL

Prairie Snowstorm


NASA/JPL

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AMSR-E

Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS

 
AMSR-E PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
CENTER
FREQUENCIES (GHz)
6.925
10.65
18.7
23.8
36.5
89.0
BANDWIDTH (MHz)
350
100
200
400
1000
3000
SENSITIVITY (K)
0.3
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
1.1
MEAN SPATIAL RESOLUTION (km)
56
38
21
24
12
5.4
IFOV
(km x km)
74 x 43
51 x 30
27 x 16
31 x 18
14 x 8
6 x 4
SAMPLING RATE
(km x km)
10 x 10
10 x 10
10 x 10
10 x 10
10 x 10
5 x 5
INTEGRATION
TIME (MSEC)
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
1.3
MAIN BEAM EFFICIENCY (%)
95.3
95.0
96.3
96.4
95.3
96.0
BEAMWIDTH
(degrees)
2.2
1.4
0.8
0.9
0.4
0.18

Arctic five-day snow depth over sea ice

12.5-km resolution
8-12 October 2002

five-day snow depth over sea ice

Monthly-averaged global wind speed

0.25 x 0.25 resolution
September 2002

monthly-averaged global wind speed

 

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 copyright J.M. Piwowar
Last Update: 2011-09-02